Infertility: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Infertility is a personal and challenging journey that impacts the lives of millions of couples and individuals. It is an inability to conceive after a year of regular and unprotected intercourse. This complex and multifaceted issue can be caused by various factors such as ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, low sperm count, or low testosterone. 

Miracles Fertility & IVF Clinic is the infertility treatment hospital in Gurgaon, renowned for its expertise in infertility treatment. We offer a compassionate and comprehensive approach for couples striving to build a family. With a dedicated team of fertility specialist doctors and state-of-the-art facilities, we provide personalized solutions tailored to individual needs. From advanced diagnostic techniques to cutting-edge fertility treatments, we are committed to guiding couples through their fertility journey with the utmost care and expertise

In this blog post, we will discuss the various facets of infertility, including its symptoms, causes, available treatments, and the emotional toll it can take on individuals experiencing it.

What is infertility?

Infertility is a medical condition marked by the inability to conceive and achieve a successful pregnancy after a period of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It can affect both males and females and has several causes.

Key points about infertility include:

  1. If your age is less than 35 years and you are not able to conceive after 12 months of regular trying to conceive. 

  2. If your age is 35 years or more and you are unable to get pregnant after 6 months of regular unprotected sex.

The process of getting pregnant involves various steps, and if any step doesn't happen, you may not achieve a successful pregnancy.

Some important steps for getting pregnant:

  • Reproductive hormones help control the functioning of the ovary. If your brain is not producing these hormones properly, it may become tough to conceive.

  • An egg must mature in the ovary.

  • Your ovary must ovulate, meaning it must release an egg.

  • Your fallopian tube must be open to pick up the egg.

  • Sperm must be released and travel up the vagina and through the uterus to reach the fallopian tube.

  • The sperm fertilizes the egg and creates an embryo.

  • Then, the embryo travels via the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants.

What are the types of infertility?

Infertility can be classified into various types depending on different factors. Here are three common types of infertility:

  1. Primary Infertility: Refers to a condition where a couple is unable to conceive instead of having regular and unprotected intercourse for at least one year. It indicates a difficulty in achieving the first successful pregnancy.

  2. Secondary Infertility: Occurs when a couple experiences difficulty in conceiving again, even though they have had one or more successful pregnancies in the past.

  3. Unexplained Infertility: In this condition, standard fertility evaluations for both partners do not show a clear cause for their inability to conceive.

How common is infertility?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility affects about 10-15% of couples worldwide. 

Infertility Symptoms and Causes

Fertility challenges can be observed in several ways, but it's important to remember that having one or more of these symptoms doesn't necessarily mean you are infertile. If you are consistently facing infertility symptoms, it's a good idea to consult with a fertility doctor for a thorough evaluation.

Common symptoms of infertility may include:

  1. Irregular Menstrual Cycles: Irregular periods may indicate ovulatory disorders, affecting a woman's ability to conceive.

  2. Painful Periods: Conditions like endometriosis can cause pelvic pain during menstruation, potentially impacting fertility.

  3. Abnormal Bleeding: Unusual or heavy menstrual bleeding may result from hormonal imbalances or structural issues.

  4. Painful Intercourse: Discomfort during sexual intercourse may be due to conditions such as endometriosis or infections, affecting fertility.

  5. Hormonal Issues: Symptoms like low libido, unusual hair growth patterns, or skin conditions may indicate hormonal imbalances affecting fertility.

  6. Changes in Male Sexual Function: Erectile dysfunction or other issues associated with male sexual function can impact fertility.

  7. Testicular Pain or Swelling: Discomfort, pain, or swelling in the testicles may indicate underlying issues affecting sperm production.

  8. Age and Timing: Fertility decreases with age. If a couple has been actively trying to conceive without success for a year (or six months for females over 35), it may be a sign to consult a fertility specialist.

  9. Previous Pregnancy Complications: Previous difficulties in carrying a pregnancy to term may indicate underlying fertility issues.

  10. Family or Personal History: A family history of reproductive issues or personal medical history can provide an understanding of potential fertility challenges.

It is also important to note that individuals or couples may experience infertility without showing any clear signs. If you or your loved ones are experiencing fertility issues but without any clear signs, then consult with a fertility specialist near you for regular check-ups to address potential causes and appropriate treatment options.

What causes infertility?

Infertility can result from several factors affecting both males and females. Understanding the potential causes is important for diagnosis and the development of appropriate treatment plans.

  • Age-Related Factors: Fertility starts declining with age in both males and females. In women, the number and quality of eggs begin to decrease in their late 30s or 40s, while for men, age can start affecting fertility around 50 years.

  • Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, including obesity, stress, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and drug use, can negatively impact fertility.

  • Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and certain cancers, can also affect fertility.

  • Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal issues, including thyroid disorders or other conditions affecting the pituitary or hypothalamus glands, can disturb the delicate balance required for reproductive processes.

  • Treatments: Certain treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy can also have a negative impact on fertility.

  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to environmental toxins, such as pesticides, chemicals, and lead, can also affect fertility.

Causes of Infertility in women

Infertility in women can result from various factors that affect the reproductive system. Here are some common causes:

  1. Ovulatory Disorders:  Female reproductive health conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can lead to irregular ovulation, impacting the release of eggs required for conception.

  2. Age-Related Factors: Fertility starts declining with age, and women experience a decrease in both the quality and quantity of eggs as they approach their late 30s or 40s.

  3. Endometriosis: In this condition, a tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. This can start to interfere with fertility.

  4. Uterine or Tubal Issues: Structural abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes, such as uterine polyps or tubal blockages can restrict the fertilization process.

  5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): Infections affecting the reproductive organs, such as PID, can cause damage to the fallopian tubes, affecting fertility.

  6. Hormonal Imbalances: Conditions like thyroid disorders or disorders affecting the pituitary or hypothalamus glands can disrupt hormonal balance, affecting reproductive processes.

  7. Cervical Issues: Abnormalities in the cervix, such as the production of thick cervical mucus, can impede the passage of sperm through the cervix.

  8. Structural Abnormalities: Congenital defects or acquired disorders that affect the structure of the reproductive organs can impact female fertility.

  9. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks reproductive organs or cells may hinder conception.

  10. Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, including excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use, and obesity, can negatively impact fertility.

  11. Previous Surgical Procedures: Surgeries, such as the removal of ovarian cysts or fibroids, can sometimes lead to scarring and affect functions of reproductive health.

  12. Genetic Factors: Inherited genetic conditions may contribute to fertility challenges in some cases.

Causes of Infertility in Men

Infertility in men can result from various factors that affect the production, maturation, or delivery of sperm.  Common causes of male infertility are:

  1. Low Sperm Count (Oligospermia): A lower-than-normal concentration of sperm in the ejaculate can decrease the chances of fertilizing an egg.

  2. Poor Sperm Motility (Asthenospermia): Sperm with low motility have difficulty swimming to reach the egg, impacting the fertilization process.

  3. Abnormal Sperm Morphology (Teratospermia): Irregularly shaped sperm may have difficulty penetrating the egg, leading to fertility issues.

  4. Erectile Dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can interfere with sexual intercourse and conception.

  5. Varicocele: In this condition, the veins in the scrotum become enlarged and can increase testicular temperature, negatively affecting sperm production.

  6. Obstructive Issues: Blockages or obstructions in the reproductive tract prevent the normal flow of sperm during ejaculation.

  7. Hormonal Imbalances: Disturbances in hormonal levels, such as low testosterone, can affect sperm production.

  8. Genetic Factors: Inherited genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome, can affect the development and function of the testicles.

  9. Infections: Infections of the reproductive organs, such as epididymitis or sexually transmitted infections, can also affect sperm health.

  10. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or autoimmune disorders, can contribute to male infertility.

  11. Retrograde Ejaculation: In this condition, semen enters the bladder instead of being discharged from the penis during ejaculation.

  12. Exposure to Environmental Factors: Exposure to environmental factors like toxins, radiation, or excessive heat for a long duration can affect sperm production.

  13. Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, and obesity, can negatively impact male fertility.

  14. Stress: Chronic stress may also contribute to hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production.

It's important to note that multiple factors may contribute to infertility. Consulting with a fertility doctor can help identify the specific causes and guide the appropriate course of action.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is female infertility diagnosed?

Diagnosing female infertility involves a well-organized approach that includes a combination of medical history assessments, physical examinations, and various diagnostic tests. 

Here is an overview of the steps in diagnosing female infertility:

  1. Medical History: The fertility specialist will take a thorough medical history to help identify possible factors contributing to infertility, including menstrual history, past pregnancies, and surgeries.

  2. Lifestyle Assessment: A fertility doctor will ask about lifestyle habits to evaluate lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, and stress to know about their effect on reproductive health.

  3. Physical Examination: They will conduct a physical examination of the pelvic area to check for abnormalities or conditions affecting the reproductive organs. It may help find out the symptoms of female health conditions or structural abnormalities.

  4. Ovulation Assessment: They will monitor and evaluate the regularity of menstrual cycles and hormonal markers, such as basal body temperature, to help determine if ovulation is occurring consistently.

  5. Hormonal Tests: They will suggest some blood tests such as thyroid function( TSH), ovarian function (FSH, LH), and prolactin levels to assess hormone levels.

  6. Hysterosalpingography (HSG): The doctor may recommend a diagnostic procedure HSG, involving the injection of contrast dye into the uterus and fallopian tubes to detect blockages or abnormalities. This test helps examine the structure of the uterus and the patency of the fallopian tubes.

  7. Pelvic Ultrasound: Pelvic ultrasound is recommended to examine the pelvis organs, including the uterus and ovaries, for structural abnormalities or conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

  8. Laparoscopy: In some cases, a minimally invasive surgical procedure called laparoscopy may be performed to view and assess the pelvic organs for abnormalities, endometriosis, or scar tissue.

  9. Genetic Testing: Genetic testing may be considered, especially if certain conditions are suspected or there is a family history of genetic disorders.

  10. Endometrial Biopsy: A biopsy of the uterine lining may be performed to assess the health of the endometrium and identify any potential issues affecting implantation.

  11. Infectious Disease Testing: Testing for sexually transmitted infections or other infections that may affect fertility.

How is male infertility diagnosed?

Diagnosing male infertility involves a thorough evaluation that includes medical history, physical examinations, and various tests to identify potential issues affecting sperm production or function. 

Here are some of the common steps involved in diagnosing male infertility:

  1. Detailed Medical History: Fertility specialists will take a detailed medical history to know about past medical illnesses, surgeries, medications, lifestyle habits, and family history. This may help in knowing the factors that contribute to infertility.

  2. Physical Examination: They will conduct a physical examination, including a genital examination, to help identify any physical abnormalities, such as varicocele or testicular atrophy.

  3. Urological Consultation: A consultation with a urologist may be recommended to assess the overall health of the male reproductive system and address any anatomical issues.

  4. Semen Analysis: Semen analysis is performed to evaluate the quantity and quality of sperm in the ejaculate. It helps assess the factors such as sperm count, motility, and morphology.

  5. Hormonal Testing: Blood tests may be conducted to measure hormone levels related to fertility, such as testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).

  6. Scrotal Ultrasound: A scrotal ultrasound can provide detailed images of the testicles, helping identify structural abnormalities, varicocele, or blockages in the reproductive tract.

  7. Testicular Biopsy: In certain cases, a testicular biopsy may be performed to obtain a sample of testicular tissue for further evaluation, especially when sperm production is severely compromised.

  8. Imaging Studies: Additional imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be conducted to evaluate the reproductive organs and identify any structural abnormalities.

Management and Treatment

How is infertility treated?

The treatment of infertility varies depending on its underlying causes. Here are some common approaches to treating infertility:

  1. Counseling and Support: Emotional support and counseling can be important for individuals and couples experiencing the challenges of infertility.

  2. Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as eating a balanced diet, regular exercise, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress can positively impact fertility.

  3. Medication: Fertility medications may be prescribed to manage hormonal imbalances, stimulate ovulation in women, or improve sperm production and quality in men.

  4. Treatment of Underlying Medical Conditions: Addressing and managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or thyroid disorders that may contribute to infertility.

  5. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): ART procedures include several advanced techniques designed to facilitate conception. These may include:

  1. Surgery: Surgical procedures may be performed to correct structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs, remove blockages, or address conditions like endometriosis.

  2. Donor Eggs or Sperm: In cases of severe male or female infertility, the use of donor eggs or sperm may be considered.

  3. Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT): PGT can be used during IVF to screen embryos for genetic abnormalities before implantation, reducing the risk of certain genetic disorders.

  4. Sperm Retrieval Techniques: Techniques like testicular sperm extraction (TESA) or epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) may be used to retrieve sperm directly from the testicles or epididymis.


How can I prevent infertility?

Here are certain lifestyle choices and practices that you can follow to protect your fertility, especially while trying to conceive:

  1. Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle

  2. Manage Stress

  3. Avoid Smoking and Excessive Alcohol Consumption

  4. Practice Safe Sex

  5. Limit environmental exposure

  6. Undergo Regular Health Check-ups

  7. Be Aware of Your Menstrual Health

  8. Know Your Fertile Window

  9. Consult with Fertility Expert


Infertility is a complex and often misunderstood issue that affects individuals and couples from all walks of life. To navigate this challenging journey, it's important to understand the underlying causes, seek appropriate treatments, and address the emotional impact, ultimately aiming to expand your family.

If you or your loved one is experiencing fertility issues and is eager to start or expand your family, we recommend consulting with the best fertility doctor near you.

Miracles Healthcare proudly stands as a leading fertility hospital, committed to comprehending each individual's unique situation and providing personalized care tailored to the specific needs of every patient. Our team of highly skilled fertility specialist doctors in Gurgaon excels in diagnosing and treating a wide range of male and female infertility issues, employing state-of-the-art techniques and treatments to optimize the chances of success. The hospital offers comprehensive healthcare services through multiple facilities: Miracles Apollo Cradle, Miracles Apollo Cradle/Spectra, Miracles Fertility & IVF Clinic, and Miracles Mediclinic. Conveniently located in Sec 14, Sec 56, and Sec 82, our facilities cater to the healthcare needs of the Gurgaon community daily.

To embark on your fertility journey with confidence and compassionate care, Contact Miracles Healthcare.


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