Causes and Treatment of Vertigo

Vertigo is a symptom and not a disease that causes spinning or swaying of the head associated with dizziness even though the person is standing still. At times vertigo is also followed by nausea, vomiting, sweating, blackouts, etc. Vertigo can be caused by various reasons which may be due to stress, food allergies, fatigue, and spondylitis or may be due to complex complications in the brain, inner ear, or any other organs in the body.

Vertigo is known to last usually for seconds but in extreme cases can even last for days also. In repetitive cases, the doctor’s intervention is advised to find out the exact cause and then frame the management.

Vertigo types

Though there are differences among different medical groups, yet it has been found that vertigoes have been segregated into two types:-

  • Vertigo occurring out of the inner ear or the vestibular nerve which connects the inner ear to the brain is called peripheral vertigo
  • Vertigo occurring from the brain specifically the cerebellum is called central vertigo. The cerebellum which is in the hind part of the brain is mainly responsible for controlling the movements and coordination of the body parts.

It has been found that approximately 93% of the vertigo cases are of a peripheral type.

Causes of central Vertigo

Central vertigo can be caused by, though not confined to

  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Stroke
  • Migraine
  • Tumour in cerebellum
  • Infection
  • Head injury

Causes of Peripheral Vertigo

The main cause of peripheral vertigo is

  • BPPV or Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo- this happens when changes happen in the brain due to the movement of calcium crystal in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. BBPV is also considered as one of the types of vertigo by a school of thought.
  • Meniere’s disease is also referred to as an inner ear disorder which affects the balance of the body and hearing
  • Acute peripheral vestibulopathy or APV which is caused by the inflammation of the inner ear due to various reasons. This can also initiate the process of vertigo.

There are other reasons for the occurrence of peripheral vertigo such as abnormal communication between the middle ear and inner ear, abnormal growth in the inner ear, etc.

Treatment of vertigo

Treatment of vertigo starts with the tests which help the doctor to zero down to the real cause. The test includes among others:-

  • Romberg test
  • Head-thrust test
  • Dix-Hall pike test
  • CT scan
  • MRI

Based on the result of these or some more tests and symptoms, the ENT specialist decides the best treatment for the patient. At times the ENT doctor ropes in a neurologist and audiologist as well. It has been observed that mostly vestibular blocking agents in the form of antihistamines, benzodiazepines, and antiemetic are used for treatments. In certain cases, the underlying problem is hunted and treated or managed to treat vertigo but in extreme cases, surgery of the inner ear is also recommended.

Medical practitioners in India have come up in providing the best treatment in any stream. Gurgaon happens to be a hot-spot for such facilities amongst other major Indian cities. Backed with state-of-the-art medical infrastructure and instruments, Gurgaon is flourishing in leaps and bounds as far as medical treatment is concerned. Ent Doctors in Gurgaon provide world-class vertigo treatment which is thus slowly developing as the medical hub of the country.


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